The exhaust section of a gas turbine engine is paramount for heat dissipation and performance, ensuring that spent gases are optimally expelled from the engine after combustion. While varying engines may contain different components and complex assemblies, the common function of all exhaust parts is to direct spent gases out of the engine in such a way that an efficient exit velocity is reached without causing turbulence. 

The main sections of the gas turbine engine include the exhaust cone, tailpipe, and exhaust nozzle. The exhaust cone is the section of the aircraft engine that follows the turbine assembly, and it gathers the expanding gases that pass through the turbine blades so that they may be directed into a solid flow. By converting the stream of gas, the exhaust cone can cut down the velocity of the gas while increasing its pressure. For the design of the exhaust cone, the section contains an outer shell, inner cone, multiple radial hollow struts, and tie rods for support.

The outer shell of the assembly is tasked with collecting exhaust gases, and it often comes in the form of a stainless steel assembly which is connected to the turbine case rear flanges. If there is a need for temperature thermocouples within the assembly, the duct may be designed with thermocouple bosses. The struts are also attached to the outer duct, and they serve as supports for the inner cone which sits in the middle of the exhaust duct. Struts are also useful for straightening the flow of exhaust, ensuring that they exit at a proper angle for beneficial operations. The inner cone is placed near the rear face of the turbine disk, and it serves to prevent exiting exhaust gases from causing turbulence. The inner cone may also feature a small hole at the exit tip, and this allows for air circulation to cool the turbine wheel.

The tailpipe is the next major section of the aircraft gas turbine engine, and they are often designed with semiflexible characteristics. For certain tailpipe constructions, a bellows arrangement may be implemented for the means of moving the tailpipe during thermal expansion, maintenance, and installation. With such capabilities of movement, the tailpipe is less at risk of warping under stress. As the high temperatures of combustion can result in heat radiating from the exhaust cone and tailpipe, engineers often implement insulation for the protection of airframe components. While there are numerous solutions that may serve for thermal protection, shrouds and insulation blankets are the most common as they can protect assemblies and increase performance.

The exhaust nozzle is the final section of the engine, and it may be a converging design for subsonic gas velocities or a converging-diverging design for the means of supersonic gas velocities. The nozzle opening may also have a fixed or variable area, the fixed area being fairly simplistic due to its lack of moving parts. It is important that fixed area nozzles are optimally designed so that the engine does not choke during operations and can achieve optimal thrust. When an augmenter or afterburner is implemented in the engine, the exhaust nozzle will come in the form of the variable area type as it will need to extend its open area to accommodate the increased mass of flow. If the augementer or afterburner is shut-off, the exhaust nozzle can adjust to a smaller opening.


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A pressure sensor is a device capable of converting pressure into an electrical signal. They have a wide range of uses in many different applications, so the type of pressure sensor you are using for a given task matters. For example, a pressure sensor that does a good job of measuring oil and gas may not be ideal for measuring hydraulic fluids. Prior to purchasing a pressure sensor, it is important to consider all types to determine which one will best suit your needs.

The first type of pressure sensor is the chemical vapor deposition pressure sensor. Chemical Vapor Deposition, or CVD, is a process used to produce highly stable strain gauge pressure transducers. This process offers a reliable option where many other low-cost pressure sensors would fail. Within each of these transducers is an ASIC chip which offers high levels of linearity correction. CVD pressure sensors are ideal for applications including off-highway, HVAC, and semiconductor processing. Pressure transducers of this type also have a thicker diaphragm, allowing them to handle intense pulsating pressures.

A second type of pressure sensor is the sputtered thin film pressure sensor. Of all types, these are the most dependable. They are known for their long-term durability and high accuracy, even in harsh conditions. Depending on the application, sensors of this type are available in ranges from 0-100 to 0-30,000 PSI. Sputtered thin film pressure sensors offer unrivaled performance in volatile environmental scenarios including high temperatures, intense shock & vibration, and massive pressure spikes. They are fit for applications such as off-highway, fire protection, refrigeration, and alternative fuel.

The next type of pressure sensor, variable capacitance pressure sensors, are ideal when you need a dependable means of measuring low pressure. These are available in ranges from 0-2 PSI to 0-15 PSI, allowing them to accommodate many applications. Their unique characteristics include a sturdy physical configuration, stainless steel & ceramic wetted parts, and variable capacitor technology. They can also be used for high pressure applications such as industrial engines, hydraulic systems, process control, and natural gas pipelines.

The fourth type of pressure sensors are ideal for applications with high shock and vibration. These are solid-state pressure sensors. They are switches featuring a hermetic stainless steel diaphragm. These sensors provide high accuracy measurements where tight system controls are needed, and are more advantageous than electromechanical pressure switches when actuations exceed fifty cycles per minute. They are used in the off-highway, medical, gas, compressor, and other industrial applications.

The final type of pressure sensors are micro machined silicon (MMS) strain gauge sensors. These offer a cost effective solution for low pressures in absolute, compound, and gauge references. MMS pressure sensors feature stainless steel parts in addition to an all-welded construction that is resistant to harsh environments and chemicals. They are most commonly used in applications such as air conditioning refrigerant recovery, gas analysis instrumentation, and medical sterilizers.


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A valve is a device used to regulate, control, or direct the flow of fluid within a system or process by opening, closing, or partially obstructing it. In piping, many different types of valves are used in varying applications. Valves have an important role within piping systems and often account for up to 30% of the overall piping system costs. However, choosing the wrong type of valve for your system can increase costs markedly, making valve selection as essential to the economics of your system as it is to the operation. 

Gate Valve

The first and most common type of valve is the gate valve. These are linear motion valves used to start or stop fluid flow. During operation, the gate valve is either fully open or fully closed. They are used in nearly all fluid services including air, fuel gas, feedwater, steam, lubricant oil, hydrocarbon, and more.

Globe Valve

The globe valve is a type of valve used to stop, start, or regulate fluid flow. These are frequently used in systems where flow control is required but leak prevention is also critical. They provide better shut off than gate valves, but are also more expensive.

Check Valve

Check valves are used to prevent backflow of fluid in a piping system. The pressure of the fluid passing through a pipe opens the valve, while any reverse flow closes the valve.

Plug Valves

A plug valve is a quarter-turn rotary motion valve that utilizes a tapered or cylindrical plug to stop and start fluid flow. They are used as on-off stop valves and are capable of providing bubble-tight shut off. As such, they can be used in vacuum and other high-pressure and high-temperature applications.

Ball Valve

Ball valves are another type of quarter-turn rotary motion valve, but these use a ball-shaped disk to control the flow. Most ball valves are of the quick-acting type, which require a 90° turn to operate the valve. Ball valves operate similarly to gate valves, but are smaller and lighter.

Butterfly Valve

A butterfly valve is a quarter-turn rotary motion valve that can stop, start, or regulate flow. This valve features a short, circular body and a compact lightweight design, making it ideal for large valve applications due to the fact it takes up very little space.

Needle Valve

Needle valves have a similar design to that of globe valves, but feature a needle-like disk. They are designed to provide accurate flow control within piping systems with small diameters. Their name is derived from their pointed conical disc and corresponding seat.

Pinch Valves

Also known as clamp valves, pinch valves are linear motion valves used to start, regulate, and stop fluid flow. They utilize a rubber tube known as a pinch tube, and a pinch mechanism that regulates flow. Pinch valves are frequently used to handle liquids with significant amounts of suspended solids or in systems that pneumatically convey solid materials.

Pressure Relief Valves

These valves, also known as pressure safety valves, are used to protect equipment or systems from overpressure events or vacuums. They are designed to release pressure at a predetermined setting to prevent these from occurring.


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Resistors are one of the most common components for electronic circuit assembly, and they come in many shapes and forms to provide a variety of properties and characteristics that may benefit differing applications. In their most simplistic form, resistors are passive electronic parts featuring two-terminals, and they are used to provide electrical resistance to a circuit. While seemingly simple, the variations in resistor types allow them to take on different roles such as reducing current flow, terminating transmission lines, dividing voltages, adjusting signal levels, and much more.

While different resistors will often be characterized by their ohmic value or other performance properties, the first major categories that serve to separate distinct types from one another is whether a resistor is fixed or variable. Fixed resistors are the most common types found within electronic circuits, and they feature set resistance values that are only slightly affected by conditions such as temperature or operating voltages. With variable resistors, circuit elements can be adjusted with the use of a slider.

Carbon composition resistors are an early fixed resistor type that was once one widely used, and they are often constructed by embedding a solid cylindrical resistive element with wire leads or end caps. To produce the resistive element, powdered carbon is mixed with a ceramic or another insulating material, and a resin is used to bind everything together. To protect the resistor’s body, paint or plastic is used to create a shell and color-coating may be implemented to denote the component’s value. As more advanced resistor types have been released over the years, the carbon composition resistor has become less common due to its inability to surpass the performance and cost of other types.

Carbon film resistors are those that are created by depositing carbon film onto an insulating substrate. With the resistive properties of carbon and a variety of shapes available, such resistors are capable of performing well on a wide range of resistance values. When compared to the carbon composition resistor, the carbon film type can operate with lower noise due to its optimal distribution of unbound pure graphite. With their ability to perform on a wider range of resistances, operating temperatures, and working voltages, such resistors are common to applications needing high pulse stability.

The metal oxide film resistor is a type with similar construction to the carbon composition resistor, though its materials consist of metal oxide film that has been deposited on a ceramic rod. With a superior temperature coefficient, close tolerances, and low noise levels, the metal oxide film resistor has currently established itself as the most widely used type.

Metal film resistors are those that use nickel chromium or other metal film materials for deposition. Due to its similar construction to the metal oxide film type, the metal film resistor is capable of achieving similar performance. With its properties and construction, the metal film resistor is most often used in applications requiring a leaded resistor.

When working with high power applications, the wire wound resistor is a reliable choice due to its characteristics. To produce such electronic parts, a metal wire of nichrome or another material is wound around an insulating core before having its ends soldered or welded to caps or rings. With a protective layer of baked enamel, molded plastic, or paint, the resistor is completed. Due to their materials and construction, such resistors are capable of operating in extremely high temperatures. With their winding, however, wire wound resistors suffer in applications that have higher frequencies.


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Screws are a type of threaded fastener used to join objects and hold them together. A screw consists of a head and threaded section which, depending on the design, may or may not flush out with the surface during fastening. There are many different types of screw heads including flat head, round head, raised head, truss head, bugle head, and more, each designed and used for a specific purpose. This blog will cover the many types of screw heads and their unique characteristics.

In their most basic form, screws are divided into two groups: countersunk screw heads and non-countersunk screw heads. In a countersunk screw head, there is an angular shape beneath the beneath the head, while in non-countersunk screw heads, there is a flat shape. To create the countersunk head, a countersink bit is drilled into the screw to provide the correct head angle. In non-countersunk screw heads, there is no pre-drilled hole necessary. In each group, there are many further classifications. Countersunk screw heads include flat heads, oval heads, and bugle heads, while examples of non-countersunk screw heads are pan heads, button heads, round heads, binding heads, flange heads, and socket heads.

Countersunk Screw Heads

The first type of countersunk screw head, the flat head, sits entirely in the same plane of the mating surface. These screw heads feature a flat top surface and a cone under the bearing surface with a standard of 82 degrees. These are ideal for use in areas where protrusion is unacceptable, such as in a bookshelf. Other applications of flat head screws include steel applications and door hinges. Oval heads are the same as flat heads but feature a dome-shaped head rather than a flat top, making them slightly more aesthetically pleasing without affecting performance. Finally, bugle heads have a flat top surface and a concave curve shape below the bearing to reduce surface damage. These heads are capable of distributing bearing stress over a wider area and are most commonly used in drywall.

Non-countersunk Screw Heads

Pan heads are the first type of non-countersunk screw heads. These feature a flat or slightly round head with chamfered edges and a flat load-bearing surface on the underside. Pan heads have moderate head height and diameter and provide high tightening torques. Button heads are domed, large diameter heads with high resistance to slipping and stripping. These are ideal for lighter fastening operations and will not be suitable for high strength applications. Round screw heads have a high profile and deep drive cut, but a smaller diameter. These were once the most popular types of screw heads but many now consider them outdated.

Binding heads are similar to pan heads, but feature a much thicker bearing surface and deeper slot, both of which increase the screw’s bearing capacity. A flange head can be considered a combination of a screw and washer. The head can be circular or hexagonal with a washer underneath the load bearing surface. This distributes pressure to help keep the screw in position and increase its bearing capacity. Finally, socket heads are the strongest type of screw head. Known for their quality and reliability, they are made from high grade carbon and stainless steel. Screw heads of this type feature a cylindrical head and long vertical sides. Their head height and shank diameters are equal, allowing them to be used in very high-strength endurance applications.


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While computer hardware was often expensive and fairly unobtainable for the standard consumer during the technology’s infancy, prices have since seen a steady drop leading into the present. Now, consumers have much easier access and ability to create more complex and powerful systems with common components available on the market. With a number of consumer motherboards now offering more than one slot for CPU attachment, shared-memory processors can be used to achieve higher system performance for a number of applications.

Shared-memory processors are a type of system that contains multiple processors that may carry out their operations together. Through a shared interconnection network, the processors can utilize the same pool of memory and communicate with one another to carry out various procedures. As such, computers with shared-memory processors can exhibit a significant difference in their computation power as compared to standard work stations with only one processor. As these assemblies are typically geared more towards demanding applications and processes that may require large amounts of program execution, many casual users may not find much use in running a shared-memory processor set-up.

In the case of an internet, database, or network server, however, having the most processors possible is paramount to smooth operations and ensuring that the servers are able to accommodate periods of high usage and user loads. Additionally, shared-memory processors can also serve to streamline certain applications, as a computer system can utilize large amounts of power to conduct a single job rather than computing a high number of small jobs at the same time. When connecting processors together, each processor is joined from their independent data caches to a shared memory pool through a single interconnection network.

Known as symmetric multiprocessing hardware, such components allow for the assembly and pairing of multiple processors so that each CPU has equal control over memory and peripherals. Across most symmetric multiprocessing hardware assemblies, buses and crossbars serve as the primary method for interconnection. In regard to computer hardware, a bus is a component that allows for data to be transferred, and they are commonly seen on many motherboards for the connection of memory, CPUs, and more. A crossbar, on the other hand, is a component containing a series of switches that may be used to conduct information processing applications. Out of the two symmetric multiprocessing hardware pieces, the bus serves as the most convenient and common approach for establishing a shared-memory multiprocessor assembly. With the bus, connections for parts, protocols, and hardware are all provided to facilitate operations with ease. As buses are limited in their ability to handle high amounts of data traffic, it is important that loads do not exceed the performance standards of the bus as to avoid bottlenecking.

With the use of a crossbar, bottlenecking is avoided as multiple paths may operate simultaneously on a grid-like system. As an example, a 4x5 crossbar could allow for up to four active data transfers to be conducted at the same time. By having a higher number of active paths as compared to a singular shared bus, more performance can be achieved. While these advantages are clearly desirable, crossbar components typically range much higher in price, and their cost only increases as the load raises. Due to this, crossbars are mostly reserved for the most high-end applications.


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A chip detector is an electronic instrument that attracts ferromagnetic particles such as iron chips. Chip detectors are frequently used in aircraft engine oil chip detection systems, where they can offer an early warning of imminent engine failure, thus greatly reducing the cost of an engine overhaul. This blog will provide an overview of chip detectors and their functions.

Chip detectors consist of small plugs that can be installed in an engine oil filter, oil sump, or aircraft drivetrain gearbox. Over time, engine wear and tear causes small metal chips to break loose from engine parts which then circulate in the engine oil, causing damage. A detector contains magnets incorporated into an electric circuit. Magnetic forces attract ferrous particles and collection of these particles continues until the insulated air gap between the magnets (in a two magnet configuration) or between the magnet and housing (in a single magnet configuration) is bridged, thereby cutting off the circuit. The result of this is an electronic signal for remote indication which activates a warning light on the instrument panel, indicating the presence of metal chips in the oil.

In applications with a self-closing valve/adapter, chip detectors can be positioned in the application through a bayonet or threaded interface. When the chip detector disengages from the valve, the valve closes, keeping any fluid loss from the system to a minimum.The chip detectors used on aircraft are inspected in every level of check. Inspection may also be done at specified intervals such as every 30 to 40 hours for an engine unit and 100 hours for an auxiliary power unit.

            There are many advantages to using a chip detector. For one, no additional tools are needed to inspect and remove debris. Additionally, chip detectors enable BIT capability by integrating a resistor at the chip gap. Chip detectors utilize blade-type retention, which eliminates much of the wear associated with common ‘pin-in-slot’ type retention methods. Furthermore, strong magnet integrity provides high ferrous capture efficiency as well as significant retention.

To further increase capture efficiency, chip detectors are equipped with flow directional screens. In order to support resistor-based wire-fault, built-in-test functionality, chip detectors feature a circuit board integrated with the chip detector. Finally, chip detectors feature an electroless nickel plating for superior wear and corrosion protection, as well as an axial design which improves the detector’s capture efficiency and ease of chip removal.

To save weight, the chip detector assembly is primarily made from aluminum. There are five main parts of a chip detector’s construction: the flying lead, chip gap, ECD-to-valve- retention lugs, seals, and springs. The flying lead construction features three insulated conductors with an overbraid shield. The chip gap is the area where debris is held. An axial chip gap design is able to collect more debris than a radial type. Retention lugs are designed to FAA approval and are integrated in the valve body where they eliminate assembly errors and provide increased bearing area. The seals, usually o-rings, are used to seal the circuits and connections from oil. Lastly, the chip detector features stainless steel valve piston springs to assist in installation and operation.

For chip detectors and much more, look no further than Aerospace Unlimited, a trusted supplier of parts for a wide range of industries. Owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we are an online distributor of aircraft parts as well as parts pertaining to the aerospace, civil aviation, defense, industrial, electronics, and IT hardware markets. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, call us at 1-412-212-0606 or email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com.


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Within a fluid system, a ball valve serves as a form of quarter turn shut-off valve that may be used to manage the flow of liquids. With a rotary ball that has a straight bore cut through it, fluids can easily pass through the bore while it is positioned along the direction of flow. Once turned 90 degrees, the passage of fluid is removed, blocking liquids from continuing through the system. With this simple operation, ball valves serve as useful components for a great number of residential and commercial fluid applications.

In general, all types of ball valves consist of five main components which are the valve stem, o-ring, valve housing, rotary ball, and valve seat. The valve stem of the ball valve is the rotary shaft that attaches the lever to the ball, allowing for the user to adjust and control flow as necessary. With an o-ring, the stem and housing of the valve can be sealed, ensuring that no fluids escape the system to prevent leakages. To construct the o-ring, various soft materials such as nitrile rubber or plastic may be used.

 The valve housing of the ball valve is what protects the internal components, as well as serves the point in which the valve may be connected to other parts. Metals such as brass and stainless steel are the most common for the construction of the housing, though PVC is also often used. Depending on the application, the housing construction can be one-, two-, or three-piece. The one-piece ball valve is the most cost efficient type, and welding is used to conjoin the valve. As such, they cannot be taken apart for any maintenance and are typically reserved for applications with low demands. Within two-piece style ball valves, parts are connected through threading. As such, these types of ball valve components may be taken apart for conducting maintenance, and the valve can be disconnected from the pipe for disassembly. Three-piece ball valves are those that are clamped together with a bolt connection, and they may not have to be entirely removed for maintenance. While remaining the highest in cost, three-piece ball valve types are the greatest for sanitary needs.

As the rotary ball provides the primary operation of the valve itself, the design of the ball is the most important. Floating ball designs are those that have valve seats that support the ball, and they can serve a diverse set of temperature applications. With a reduced bore type, the flow of liquid is reduced, and thus friction loss is caused. Despite this, the amount of loss is less than other valves and reduced bore design serves as the most common type. Trunnion ball types have support provided to the ball from the top and bottom, thus minimizing the amount of load that the valve seats are subjected to. As such, trunnion ball valve components are useful for high and low pressure applications. The full bore valve design implements a bore size that is equal to the pipe diameter, and this allows for easier maintenance and less friction. Lastly, the V-shaped bore is a design that has a V-shape profile, and this permits precise flow rates that can be optimized for linear flow.

With their simplistic design, reliability, and optimal sealing capabilities, the various types of ball valve components remain beneficial for a number of water and gas applications. No matter your operational needs, the experts at Aerospace Unlimited can help you secure everything you are searching for with ease. As a premier supplier of components for the aviation, defense, marine, medical, electronic, and IT hardware industries, we provide customers rapid lead-times and competitive pricing on all that we carry for their benefit. Get started today and see how we can serve as your strategic sourcing partner for all of your needs.


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Ice can quickly accumulate, as you can usually tell just by looking or using your car on a very cold day. In cold climates, the ice can stick to your windows, blocking your windows. Not only that, but they can also make certain mechanisms stuck (such as a door or a gear) and result in your car not functioning at all, leaving you stranded where you are. These same issues can also affect an aircraft. As an aircraft needs to be functioning at full capacity in order to safely transport its passengers across the skies, the need to apply an anti-icing solution is even more detrimental. The process of using an anti-icing system is somewhat akin to someone applying a deicing solution to the windows of a vehicle before driving. In principle or idea, they are the same, but as you go through the process, you start to notice the differences. In this article, we will break down the process of using an anti-icing system, and also discuss why using these tools is so important.

Plane deicing is a strategy that consists of warming and applying deicing fluid onto the plane windows and wings. The significance of doing this is pivotal because this method ensures the eventual melting of snow that has been cemented onto the plane and, if not removed, could bargain the security of its next flight. The basic idea behind an anti-icing system is to tackle the cause that is making the outer atmosphere conditions to result in ice that can damage your vessel. You can take steps to prevent this by simply hangaring your plane. Hangaring the plane can shield it from ice and precipitation. Before leaving the plane in the safe space, you would need to ensure that there are no traces of water left on its surface, as these surfaces could be at risk of accumulating ice even inside the capacity. That is why it is ideal to clear any traces of water before you store the plane. Various habits by which you can shield ice from forming is by putting wing canvases or covers onto the plane. While it may not be 100% secure against ice, this procedure, notwithstanding the hangaring and water ejection philosophy, can spare time and costs.

There are also some parts and components of the aviation anti icing process and equipment that are important to have for deicing a plane. These constitute stream control valve, deicing boots, heat spread, and pitot tube. The stream valve is significant because it  utilizes a solenoid valve that engages air from the direct to stream into the gadget system. The valve opens once the device is enabled by the de-icing switch. This enables the contraption to work and warm the ice off from the vessel’s edges. Other tools that you can use include deicing boots. They are stretchy rubbery parts that are placed onto the corners of the fuselage, vertical stabilizer and the wing. They work by breaking down any ice accumulating at any point on the plane. Deicing boots are bulky pieces of rubber that are fastened onto the leading edges of an aircraft, typically the vertical stabilizer and the wing. They work by inflating any time there is an accumulation of ice buildup.

Once they’re inflated, snow or ice begin to crack on the surface. Eventually it flies off entirely, leaving no residue of snow. A heat blanket can also be used to cover the surface of an aircraft. The blanket works by trapping heat onto the surface and thus preventing any snow or ice from accumulating. Lastly, the pitot tube is significant because the freezing of these tubes can cause your airspeed indicator to fail. The airspeed indicator receives data on ram pressure but if the pitot tube is frozen over, that can alter the numbers. You may be flying slower than the airspeed indicator perceives. In this case, it is the pilot’s responsibility to descend to altitudes that are free of icing conditions and land, after which aircraft personnel can focus on deicing the pitot tube.

For more information on applying anti icing systems and solutions, contact the team at Aerospace Unlimited. We are the premier supplier of aviation, military, and defense parts. Not only do we provide anti-icing systems in airplanes, but we also stock pneumatic systems and systems for wing leading edge. Get in touch with us today!


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Rivet nuts are a type of internally threaded fastener that is often used for materials that are brittle or thin, allowing for fastening solutions for components that are intolerable of hole tapping. The rivet nut features a one-piece design, allowing for it to be anchored from one side of the component. Rivet nuts were originally developed in 1936 for attaching rubber deicing boots to the leading edge of an aircraft wing, and they have since expanded their use to many more applications. In this blog, we will discuss the various types of rivet nuts and rivet materials that may be chosen from, enabling you to find which is best suited for your needs.

Also known as blind rivet nuts, such fasteners may either feature an open end or a closed end. With a closed end nut, the back end of the fastener is completely sealed out, preventing debris and contaminants from entering. To further protection, sealants may also be implemented to deter moisture and lubricants. When choosing which types of rivet nuts are best suited for your application, it is important to consider the torque value, grip range, rivet material, body style, parent material, environment, strength of the rivet, and size of the rivet.

Aluminum rivet nuts are a type that provides the means for facilitating simple connections and provides clean internal threads once installed. They are fairly easy to establish within components and often do not need finishing as well. In general, aluminum rivet materials have benefits such as resistance to corrosion, decreased weight, and high electrical and thermal conductivity.

Where there is a need for a fastener that provides high strength capability and resistance to corrosion, rivet materials such as stainless steel is very beneficial. Stainless steel is very durable, and its resistance extends to corrosion, fire, and heat. It also provides optimal strength to weight ratios, allowing for powerful fastening solutions without greatly increasing overall weight.

Brass rivet nuts are often reserved for implementation in applications where there is a need for a very versatile metal. For sheet metal, brass rivet nuts may be installed very quickly and provide an effective fastening solution, and they are favorable for a wide range of applications. In regards to their capabilities, brass rivet nuts feature good malleability and resistance to corrosion, as well as exceptional tolerance to temperature.

To install rivet nuts, a compression process is used to attach the fastener to the component. This is typically carried out with the use of a special rivet nut tool which squeezes the nut with in-line forces. Depending on whether the rivet nut body is smooth, swage, hex, or ribbed, various torque values may be utilized to ensure a proper installation that will be strong and effective. As various rivet nut types and materials each provide their own benefits, it is important to consider all aspects of the application so that you may find the perfect fit.

When it comes time to begin sourcing the aircraft rivet nuts that you need for your operations, Aerospace Unlimited has you covered with everything you are searching for. Aerospace Unlimited is owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we can help you find the aviation, NSN, and electronic parts that you are searching for, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. ASAP Semiconductor is an FAA AC 00-56B accredited and ISO 9001:2015 certified enterprise. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com or call us at +1-412-212-0606.


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Over the course of a product’s life cycle, the device may require certain changes. Before these changes can be made, a manufacturer must acquire a PMA (Premarket Approval) supplement. A PMA supplement is the submission required for a change regarding the safety or effectiveness of a device for which an applicant already has an existing PMA. Similar to PMA supplements, PMA amendments include all additional submissions to a PMA or PMA supplement prior to approval of the PMA, PMA Supplement, or all additional correspondence after the PMA or PMA supplement.

The type of PMA submission depends on a number of factors, the most common of which is the data needed to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of changes. Despite this, there are many different changes that require a PMA supplement as well as a number of types of PMA supplements. This blog will explain the changes that trigger the need for a PMA supplement, as well as a few of the many types of PMA supplements.

After the FDA has approved a PMA, the applicant must submit an PMA supplement for review and approval before making the proposed changes. Changes for which an applicant must submit a PMA supplement are vast, including but not limited to:

  • New indication for use of the device.
  • Labeling changes.
  • The use of a different facility for the manufacturing, processing, or packaging of the device.
  • Changes in manufacturing methods or quality control procedures.
  • Changes in sterilization procedures.
  • Changes in packaging.
  • Changes in performance or design specifications, circuits, components, principles of operation, or physical layout of the device.
  • An extension of the expiration date of the device based on data obtained under new or revised testing protocols that have not been approved by the FDA. If the protocol has been previously approved by the FDA, a supplement is not needed but the change must still be reported to the FDA.

While there are many types of PMA supplements, the four most common are the PMA Panel-Track Supplement, PMA Supplement (180 Days), Real Time Supplements, and Special PMA Supplements. Panel-Track Supplements are specific to changes that request a significant change in design, performance, or usage of the device. To gain a panel-track supplement, substantial clinical data of assurance of safety and effectiveness is required. 180-day PMA supplements are required for changes relating to the safety and effectiveness of a device, as well as changes in the components, materials, design characteristics, specification, software, or labeling.

Real time supplements are needed when a minor change to a device, such as a change in its design, is requested and the FDA has granted a meeting or similar exchange to review the status of the supplement in real time. Special PMA supplements are required when any changes enhance the safety of a device or the safety in use of the device, or for certain labeling and manufacturing changes that enhance the safety of the device. Special PMA supplements can be placed into effect by the applicant prior to the receipt of a written FDA order approving the PMA supplement.

PMA supplements are critical in any highly-regulated industry. At Aerospace Unlimited, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you source all types of FAA PMA supplements parts through our PMA supplement list and deliver them with some of the industry’s best lead times. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com or call us at +1-412-212-0606. Our team of dedicated account managers is standing by and will reach out to you in 15 minutes or less.


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As we continue to move through these unprecedented times during the COVID-19 pandemic, more United States manufacturers are stepping up to aid in the supply shortage of ventilators and masks that are desperately needed by medical professionals and other affected sectors. Leading into June, car manufacturer Ford has joined companies such as 3M and General Electric to aid the medical community in this initiative.

Currently, Ford is not the only carmaker to contribute to the pandemic efforts, as similar decisions have also recently been made by companies such as Tesla and General Motors. Medical equipment such as medical masks and ventilators are a crucial need to treat an increasing number of symptomatic carriers, and shortages have proven to be a major issue currently. With the help of Ford, 3M’s output of powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) masks is to be expanded. With an increase in production, state governments and other sectors may see more supply of needed medical equipment.

Together with 3M, Ford hopes to increase the manufacturing and supply of PAPR masks as quickly as possible, and they seek to utilize established technologies and products from their respective companies to aid in the effort. Ford also claims to be working alongside the health care division of GE in order to create a more simplistic ventilator. Without furthering information, Ford claimed that ventilators could be produced at both Ford and GE locations concurrently. As droplets from a person’s coughing or sneezing may lead to infection with the novel coronavirus, Ford also seeks to begin testing and production of new face shields that may further protect the medical professionals who are in close proximity with affected patients and individuals.

Other car manufacturers, such as General Motors and Tesla, have also been making strides in the production and supply effort with their respective initiatives. Recently, GM announced that they are partnering with Ventec Life Systems, a manufacturer of ventilators, to increase their logistics, manufacturing, and issues to improve output. Tesla has also been aiding in supply, providing ventilators to the state of California in March. For the University of Washington’s Medical Center, Tesla sent around 50,000 3M produced N95 surgical masks.

While companies such as Ford, General Motors, and Tesla have recently joined the fight against the pandemic, they are not alone in their efforts. Through the past months and moving into the future, we are seeing a great increase in United States companies working to fortify the strained medical infrastructure and medical care system. From boosting the supply chain for sourcing supplies and hastening production of highly needed medical materials, many American companies are spearheading manufacturing initiatives to combat COVID-19. As we continue to protect people and various sectors from the devastating effect of the virus, we may see even more companies step in to provide support.

Ensuring that you have the medical equipment that you need for protecting yourself, employees, and others is very important during these unprecedented times. When you are ready to begin sourcing medical equipment and related medical supplies that you need for your operations, Aerospace Unlimited has you covered with everything you are searching for. Aerospace Unlimited is owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we can help you find the aviation, NSN, and electronic parts that you are searching for, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. ASAP Semiconductor is an FAA AC 00-56B accredited and ISO 9001:2015 certified enterprise. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com or call us at +1-412-212-0606.


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Within a plumbing or fluid system, valves are important components that are implemented to regulate, control, and direct the flow of fluids within the system. Solenoid valves are a special type of valve that is operated electromechanically, and they may perform many of the same functions of a standard valve automatically. With various types available that offer diverse sets of capabilities, solenoid operated valves may benefit a number of plants, equipment, and applications. In this blog, we will discuss the functionality of solenoid valves, as well as the applications that they benefit.

Unlike standard valves, solenoid valves do not need to be operated manually, and thus they open up the capability of remote control to serve as externally piloted valves. The main components that form the solenoid valve assembly are the subassembly, core tube, bonnet, hanger spring, backup washer, diaphragm, disk, and valve body. Within the solenoid subassembly, there is typically a retaining clip, solenoid coil, core tube, plugnut, shading coil, core spring, and core. Altogether, these parts provide for the automatic control of fluids within the system.

Solenoid valves operate by opening and closing orifices within the body of the valve, either permitting or denying the flow of fluids. The opening and closing of these orifices is done by the plunger within the sleeve tube that is actuated by a magnetic field. Such magnetic fields may be produced by having a current run through the coil of the solenoid, energizing it to create the magnetic field. This magnetic field and energizing of the solenoid is harnessed to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy for valve operations. The seals of a solenoid valve may be metallic or rubber, and electrical interfaces may be present to create an ease of control.

The main benefit of a solenoid valve is the ability to remotely control functions, as well as permit more complex processes within a system. Solenoid valves create the ability to easily shut off, release, dose, distribute, and mix fluids within a system. On top of their capabilities, solenoid valves also tout high reliability and service lives, as well as permit fast switching, low control power, and are compact in design.

Within industries and applications, the use of solenoid valves may range from simple on and off control of dishwashers to plant control loops. Common uses of solenoid valves include applications such as water supply, fuel supply, wastewater treatment, oil and gas burner control, blood analysis instruments, gas mixture regulation, pressure relief and drainage, large heating systems, machine engineering, and much more. Depending on the application, various solenoid materials may be used, such as brass, stainless steel, aluminum, and plastics. Solenoid valves may also be direct current or alternating current powered, as well as may be one or two solenoid valves. Since their debut in the 1910, solenoid valves have been greatly beneficial to a number of hydraulic and pneumatic systems.

When it comes time to begin sourcing the solenoid operated valves and aerospace components that you need for your next project or operation, Aerospace Unlimited has you covered with everything you are searching for. Aerospace Unlimited is owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we can help you find the aircraft and marine parts that you are searching for, new or obsolete.


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Aircraft ground support equipment (GSE) refers to the equipment and components that are used to provide servicing and operations for aircraft in-between flights while they are grounded. GSE components and equipment may be used for aircraft mobility, loading operations, ground power operations, and other operations as needed. As commercial aircraft and airliners adhere to strict flight schedules, the efficiency and speed of aircraft ground support services is always a facet that providers strive to improve in order to minimize turnaround times. Over the forecast period of 2019 to 2025, the market for aircraft ground support equipment is expected to increase by $2.2 billion, equaling a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.45%. Altogether, this forecast puts the total market value at $9.7 billion by 2025. From technological advancements of GSE equipment to steadily increasing passenger air traffic, many factors contribute to this upwards growth. In this blog, we will discuss how ground support equipment aids in aircraft servicing, as well as the factors contributing to the market growth for the 2019-2025 forecast period.

In general, aircraft ground support equipment and services are not only tied to maintaining the aircraft’s ability to fly, but also encompass many other services and operations. In-between flights, GSE operations ensure that passenger comfort and safety is established and well maintained. This includes cleaning passenger cabins to remove trash and waste, as well as the restocking of consumables. GSE services also include cycling items such as blankets, pillows, magazines, tissues, and soap to maintain cleanliness for passengers. During this time, security of the aircraft can be established as personnel check for any concerning paraphernalia left behind after a flight. During their normal routines, GSE services will also remove waste from lavatories, cater food and drinks, and even provide electricity and air conditioning for terminal gates for crew and passenger comfort.

Nevertheless, aircraft ground support equipment will also be used for many normal in-between flight tasks. During this time, GSE personnel aid with the loading and unloading of cargo and passengers, refuel the aircraft, examine engines and the fuselage, and perform other ground operations to ensure safety and optimal operation of the aircraft before its next scheduled flight. Often, all of these ground services will be fulfilled by a subcontracted airport or handling agent. With smaller airlines, larger carriers may be subtracted, or they may establish a Maintenance and Ground Support Agreement with another airliner. To perform their operations, ground services utilize GSE components such as dollies, chocks, tripod jacks, service stairs, refuels, tugs, tractors, ground power units, buses, container loaders, and other vehicles and equipment.

Due to their benefits and services for aircraft preparation and operation, combined with an increased amount of air traffic, demand for GSE components and equipment is on the rise. Electric ground support equipment has been seeing increased amounts of interest, especially with the advent of more automated equipment options. Automation with robotic technology is slowly being introduced, allowing for streamlined operations such as automatic shut downs, ID cards for authorization, and electronic check-ins such as seat belt requirements before equipment can be turned on. Robotic handling of baggage is also becoming automated in certain airports across the world. Altogether, automation allows for increased safety and reduction on costs.

As the aviation industry is constantly expanding and moving into developing countries, the need for GSE operations also increases. Emerging economies and markets, such as the Asia Pacific and Middle East regions, are expected to contribute to the non-electric segment of the GSE market. The Middle East has the highest projected GSE CAGR growth, attributable to the amount of airports that are being constructed as air traffic expands. Meanwhile, electric and hybrid GSE markets continue to grow in areas such as North America, which continues to be a majority contributor to the overall market. Major players in the ground support equipment market include JBT Corporation, Tug Technologies Corporation, Tronair, Teleflex Lionel-Dupont, Cavotex, ITW GSE, Guangtai, among others.

With a great amount of markets across the world becoming invested in various GSE market segments, market growth should continue to rise and develop. When you are searching for parts for your ground support equipment operations, Aerospace Unlimited is your one-stop-shop for premium parts and solutions. Whether you need a tool bag, pin assy, or other GSE component, we can help you source everything you need with competitive prices and quick lead-times on even the most hard-to-find parts.


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Within the realm of aviation, landing gear proves to be one of the most important systems of the entire aircraft. Through the many aircraft landing gear components working together, an aircraft is able to touch ground and come to a stop safely and efficiently, avoiding damages. This is due to their specifically engineered designs that are in place to meet various requirements of weight, size, performance, and beyond as per FAA regulations. In this blog, we will discuss the aircraft landing gear system and how it helps bring an aircraft safely to a stop after flight.

Aircraft landing gear components work together to aid the aircraft during taxiing, landing, and take-off operations. Due to various needs and requirements surrounding these operations, landing gear is more often than not the first consideration and designed component of an aircraft. Designing and manufacturing landing gear can be a lengthy process due to having to uphold various required airworthiness regulations and to best serve the aircraft they are intended for. Depending on the type of aircraft and its application, different designs and equipment may be utilized as well.

To achieve a successful landing, each of the aircraft landing gear components have their own functionality and purpose. Piston landing gear, such as airplane wheels, are often fitted with shock absorbers to take the impact forces of landing off of the fuselage, and wheels also allow for taxiing around a runway. Disc brake and other brake types on the wheels have the important function of slowing down the aircraft speed until it can safely stop or taxi. Airplane wheels may also be installed in various numbers and arrangements, the most common being the taildragger and tricycle undercarriage. Often, landing gear may have the ability to be retractable and can be deployed and/or retracted into the fuselage while in flight with the aid of hydraulic systems. With retractable landing gear, aircraft can reduce drag that would be caused by the wheels and other systems.

Future plans for developing landing gear technologies include using high strength materials, damping systems, and electronic actuation. With high strength materials, fatigue and corrosion can be reduced for longer equipment lifespan. Damping systems are important to reduce fatigue and wear as well, as these electronic systems are slowly proving to be a very viable alternative for the replacement of hydraulic actuation systems. This is due to the fact that electric actuation systems are beginning to compete in weight, and do not have the problem of flammability and leaking that hydraulic systems have. Beyond these examples, there are many other goals of the aviation community to bring improvements to landing gear design and functionality.

When designing or maintaining your aircraft landing gear system, know that Aerospace Unlimited has you covered with our expansive inventory of over six billion parts. We understand that the parts procurement process can seem difficult, so we work to make it as simple as possible for you. Our expert staff are on hand to aid our customers with any questions that they may have during the purchasing process, and we can provide quick lead-times on hard to find and obsolete components.

Aerospace Unlimited is owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, and we can help you find arm assembly torque parts and other aviation components you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. Our dedication to quality and our customers is why we are proud to be an FAA AC 00-56B accredited and ISO 9001:2015 certified enterprise. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com or call us at +1-412-212-0606.


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PMA stands for Parts Manufacturer Approval. This approval is what allows for manufacturers to produce and sell articles for installation on type certification products. The approval can only be given by the United States Federal Aviation Administration. Simply put, the FAA is required to utilize the PMA process to greenlight the design and manufacturing of certain aviation and aerospace parts. Designing, manufacturing, distributing and operating with such a part that has not gone through the approval process is illegal and subject to severe punishments. For more information on how the PMA process works, you can read more about it in the article below.

You can observe a great example of the PMA process when aviation companies need to acquire replacement parts (such as an aircraft brake) for a commercial or corporate jet. In order to procure these parts, they must ensure that the desired piece passes the PMA phase. This involves the FAA identifying airworthiness standards before applying them to the part and then determining the criticality of this part. The two FAA branches involved in implementing this are the Aircraft Certification Offices (ACO’s) and the Manufacturing Inspection District Offices (MIDO’s). Afterwards, aviation authorities would submit a test plan for its design approval and if passed, establish an inspection system to scrutinize the nooks and crannies of the piece.

If the piece passes this phase of the process, the PMA part would then need established instructions for repair and inspection, followed by instructions for a continued operational safety plan. Once everything has been set in place and tests have been run enough times to prove the airworthiness of the part, only then can the ACO and MIDO give the final approval that the part is suitable enough to fly the skies.

At Aerospace Unlimited, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find aircraft components and accessories you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com or call us at +1-412-212-0606.


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Aircraft wings are airfoils that attach to the body of an aircraft at different angles and shapes to create lift and sustain flight. Different wing configurations provide variant flight characteristics like the amount of lift generated, the level of control at different operating speeds, aircraft stability and flight balance. Aircraft wings may be attached at the bottom, mid or top of the fuselage. The wing tip can be pointed, rounded or square and the wing can extend out from the fuselage perpendicularly , angled down or slightly up. The angle at which a wing extends out from the fuselage’s horizontal state is called the dihedral angle and this affects an aircraft’s lateral stability.

Wings are mostly constructed using aluminum, but they can also be made using wood covered with fabric, magnesium alloy, carbon fiber, and in modern aircraft, stronger and lighter materials like titanium. The framing of aircraft wings are outlined by beam like spars. The ribs of a wing are connected to these spars and provide sound structure and stability. Lastly, the entire aircraft from fuselage to wingspan is covered in a skin that ensures the aircraft moves through the sky as one unified body.

There are 9 types of wing design that each offer their own unique capabilities. The rectangle wing (not aerodynamically efficient) is your basic non-tapered, straight wing, mostly used in small aircraft, extending perpendicular to the fuselage. Elliptical wings (most aerodynamically efficient) induce the lowest possible drag and their thin wing structure was initially designed to house landing gear, ammunition and guns inside the wing. The chord of a tapered wing varies across it’s span for approximate elliptical lift distribution.

Delta wings are triangular in shape and lay over the fuselage. Their low aspect ratio makes them ideal in supersonic, subsonic, and transonic flight. These wings have improved maneuverability and reduced wing loading but due to their low aspect ratio, do have a high induced drag. Trapezoidal wings offer outstanding flight performance, highly efficient supersonic flight, and have great stealth characteristics. Ogive wings are designed for very high speeds, have minimal drag at supersonic speeds, but are very complex and difficult to manufacture. Most high-speed commercial aircraft use a swept-back wing design that reduces drag at transonic speeds. Forward-swept wings have controllability issues and because of the flow characteristics the outboard wings stall before the flaps. Variable sweep wings were designed to optimize flight experience over a range of speeds and have three modes of extension: straight out to the side, slightly back, and farther back to create a triangle shaped aircraft.

At Aerospace Unlimited, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find the aircraft wing components you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com or call us at +1-412-212-0606.


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Aircraft are defined by their wings. The shape, size, and configuration will affect all aspects of an aircraft’s performance and specifications. Wings are airfoils, shapes designed to create lift when moving rapidly through the air. This lift, combined with the thrust generated by the aircraft’s engine or engines, is what allows an aircraft to fly.

Wings come in various different configurations and shapes, depending on the requirements of the aircraft and its intended use. A wing’s shape will determine how much lift it generates, how the aircraft controls at various operating speeds, stability, balance, and more. Both the trailing edge and leading edge of an aircraft wing can be curved or straight, and wings can attach at various points on the fuselage- bottom, middle, or on the top. There is also the wing dihedral angle, which is the angle at which the wing is set, either perpendicular, or angled up or down.

Aircraft wings are typically built in a complete cantilever design, meaning that they do not require external bracing or support, and are internally supported by structural members and the aircraft’s string. Some designs, however, do feature external wires or struts to prevent vibration and maintain structural integrity. Most wings are built from aluminum, but older aircraft will use wood frames covered in fabric. Modern aircraft often use carbon fiber materials in their construction as well. Wings typically consist of stringers and spars that run spanwise, and formers, bulkheads, and ribs that run chordwise, from leading edge to trailing edge.

Common wing shapes include:

Rectangular:

The rectangular wing is easy to manufacture, and features a non-tapered, straight design used mostly in small aircraft that extends from the fuselage at a 90 degree angle. However, rectangular wings are not very aerodynamically efficient.

Elliptical:

These wings are very aerodynamically efficient and induce minimal drag. However, they are very difficult to manufacture. Elliptical wings were originally designed for military aircraft to house landing gear, guns, and ammunition inside a wing. The ellipse shape was designed to offer the thinnest possible wing, all while holding all these components.

Tapered:

Created as a compromise between elliptical and rectangular designs, tapered wings feature a chord that gradually grows smaller closer to the tip. While not as efficient as elliptical wings, tapered wings offer a compromise between efficiency and manufacturability.

Swept-wing:

Most modern aircraft feature swept-back wings, as they reduce drag and maintain controllability while flying at transonic speeds.

Delta:

Essentially a massive triangle-shaped wing, delta designs are a very low aspect ratio wing used in supersonic aircraft. Delta wings are efficient in all phases of flight, subsonic, transonic, and supersonic, and offers a large surface area which improves maneuverability and reduces wing load. Delta wings are also structurally sound, possess a large volume for fuel storage, and are simple to manufacture and maintain. However, delta wings create lots of drag, and at low speed operations they force a high angle of attack because of vortices creating lift, which makes take-offs and landings challenging.

Variable sweep:

These designs feature wings that are mounted on mechanical hinges that let them alter their profile mid-flight that can sweep the wing back and forth. This lets the wings alter their profiles to be more suitable for low speed or high speed operations. However, these wings are very mechanically complex, and require lots of maintenance.

At Aerospace Unlimited, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the aircraft wing parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com or call us at 1412-212-0606.


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RC helicopters have been a fairly popular hobby for many for a long time. They allow many to simulate what it is like to fly a real helicopter and can provide much enjoyment. While the complexities of an RC helicopter may be much less than their real counterpart, there are similar components and controls. For the purpose of an RC helicopter, there are five main components which are the main and tail rotors, swashplates, cyclical control, and collective control.

Attached to the fuselage, the main rotor consists of two or more blades and is what enables the lifting power of the RC helicopter. This amount of lift is dependant on the inclination angle of the blades, as well as their velocity. Often, the RPM of the main rotor ranges anywhere from 1500-3000. By increasing the main rotor’s pitch, increased push and lift force can be achieved. The tail rotor is also important as it is what keeps the helicopter from spinning around in circles due to the force of the main rotor. By increasing or decreasing the thrust of the tail rotor, one can then steer the helicopter.

The swashplates are important as they are what translate the flight control input for the main rotor of the RC helicopter. A swashplate consists of two discs, one that is stationary and another that is moving. With cyclical controls, the swashplate can be tilted in any direction, as well as up and down through the use of collective controls.

Cyclical control allows for the helicopter to have 360 degree movement through the tilting of the oscillating plate and separately elevating the rotor pitch. The helicopter will begin to tip towards the direction of the side that has the lowest altitude. Collective control, on the other hand, changes the rotor blade pitch in unison to the same degree. The RC helicopter’s radio transmitter is able to control and translate the cyclic and collective movements.

At Aerospace Unlimited, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find helicopter parts you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com or call us at +1-412-212-0606.


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A helicopter is a type of rotary aircraft in which thrust and lift are achieved through the use of spinning rotors. This allows the aircraft to take off and land vertically and hover at a fixed altitude. Despite helicopters being far smaller than most airplanes, the rapidly-spinning rotors make it very hard to control. Each helicopter is made of five main parts: the cockpit, main rotor, tail rotor, landing gear, and engine. This blog will explain each of the five main parts in further detail.

The cockpit is the brain of the helicopter. It serves as the central control unit and determines all the activity of the helicopter. The pilot and co-pilot reside in the cockpit, however some helicopters do not require two people to control. The four most important control the pilot uses in the cockpit are the cyclic, collective, anti-torque pedals, and throttle.

Just as the cockpit is the brain of a helicopter, the main rotor is the heart. It is perhaps the single most important component of the helicopter. The main rotor allows the pilot to control which way the helicopter turns, changes altitude, and moves laterally. The pilot commands the rotor with the cockpit controls linked to the swash plate assembly. The tail rotor is found at the rear end of a helicopter and is necessary to counteract the torque caused by the main rotor. If the tail rotor were not present, the aircraft would spin in the inverse direction of the main rotor.

Landing gear comes in a variety of types but skids and wheels are the most common. Floats, pontoons, and bear paws are also used. Bear paws are an attachment to skids used when the helicopter is landing off airport on unstable terrain providing more stability. The two types of helicopter engines are reciprocating and turbine. Reciprocating engines use pistons to convert pressure into motion thereby creating power. Turbine engines create power by mixing compressed air with fuel to create high-speed gas to turn the turbine blades.

At Aerospace Unlimited, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for helicopters as well as the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries as a whole. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@aerospaceunlimited.com or call us at 412-212-0606.


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